Agnosticism is the view that the truth values of certain claims – especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether or not God,
the divine or the supernatural exist – are unknown and perhaps unknowable.
In social theory and philosophy, antihumanism (or anti-humanism) is a theory that is critical of traditional humanism and traditional ideas
about humanity and the human condition. Central to antihumanism is the view that concepts of "human nature", "man", or "humanity", should
be rejected as historically relative or metaphysical.
Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities. In a narrower sense, atheism
is specifically the position that there are no deities. Most inclusively, atheism is the absence of belief that any deities exist.
The Brights movement is a sociocultural movement formed of persons who hold a naturalistic view of the world.
Freethought (also spelled free thought) is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis
of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, or other dogmas. The cognitive application of freethought is known as
"freethinking", and practitioners of freethought are known as "freethinkers"
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally
prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism, empiricism) over established doctrine or faith (fideism). The meaning of the term humanism has
fluctuated, according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it. Generally, however, humanism refers to a perspective
that affirms some notion of a "human nature"
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world.
" Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe,
that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
In epistemology, rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a
source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth
is not sensory but intellectual and deductive". Rationalists believe reality has an intrinsically logical structure. Because of this, rationalists
argue that certain truths exist and that the intellect can directly grasp these truths. That is to say, rationalists assert that certain rational
principles exist in logic, mathematics, ethics, and metaphysics that are so fundamentally true that denying them causes one to fall into contradiction.
Rationalists have such a high confidence in reason that proof and physical evidence are unnecessary to ascertain truth – in other words,
"there are significant ways in which our concepts and knowledge are gained independently of sense experience". Because of this belief, empiricism
is one of rationalism's greatest rivals.
Skepticism or scepticism (see spelling differences) is generally any questioning attitude towards unempirical knowledge or opinions/beliefs stated as
facts, or doubt regarding claims that are taken for granted elsewhere.
Theism, in the field of comparative religion, is the belief that at least one deity exists. In popular parlance, the term theism often describes
the classical conception of God that is found in Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Sikhism, and Hinduism
"Universism is the world's first rational religion...We celebrate faith in reason, inspiration in nature, and hope in progress...A Universist an individual
who applies personal reason and experience to the fundamental questions of human existence, derives inspiration from the natural uncertainty of the human state,
and denies the validity of revelation, faith and dogma." - United Universists
Xenophobia is the unreasoned fear of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange. Xenophobia can manifest itself in many ways involving the
relations and perceptions of an ingroup towards an outgroup, including a fear of losing identity, suspicion of its activities, aggression, and desire
to eliminate its presence to secure a presumed purity. Xenophobia can also be exhibited in the form of an "uncritical exaltation of another culture"
in which a culture is ascribed "an unreal, stereotyped and exotic quality"